As a grammatical rule In linguisticsepenthesis generally breaks up a consonant cluster or vowel sequence that is not permitted by the phonotactics of a language. Regular or semiregular epenthesis commonly occurs in languages which use affix es. Vocalic epenthesis typically occurs when words are borrowed from a language that has consonant clusters or syllable coda s that are not permitted in the borrowing language, though this is not always the cause. Languages use various vowels for this purpose, though schwa is quite common when it is available.
There is no epenthesis from a historical perspective since the a-t is derived from Latin habet 'he has'and so the t is the original third-person verb inflection. However it is correct to call it epenthesis when viewed synchronically since the modern basic form of the verb is a and so the psycholinguistic process is therefore the addition of t to the base form.
A similar example is the English indefinite article a, which becomes an before a vowel.
However, a synchronic analysis, in keeping with the perception of most native speakers, would equally correctly see it as epenthesis: In Dutchwhenever the suffix -er which has several meanings is attached to a word already ending in -r, an additional -d- is inserted in between.
Similarly, the agent noun of verkopen "to sell" is verkoper "salesperson"but the agent noun of uitvoeren "to perform" is uitvoerder "performer".
However, the pronunciation was often not written with double ll, and may have been the normal way of pronouncing a word starting in rel- rather than a poetic modification. In Japanese[ edit ] A limited number of words in Japanese use epenthetic consonants to separate vowels.
That is a synchronic analysis. It exhibits epenthesis on both morphemes: Some accounts distinguish between "intrusive vowels", vowel-like releases of consonants as phonetic detail, and true epenthetic vowels, which are required by the phonotactics of the language and acoustically identical with phonemic vowels.
Historical sound change[ edit ] End of word[ edit ] Many languages insert a so-called prop vowel at the end of a word to avoid the loss of a non-permitted cluster. The cluster can come about by a change in the phonotactics of the language that no longer permits final clusters.
Something similar happened in Sanskritwith the result that a new vowel -i or -a was added to many words. Another possibility is a sound change deleting vowels at the end of a word, which is a very common sound change.
That may well produce impermissible final clusters. In some cases, the problem was resolved by allowing a resonant to become syllabic or inserting a vowel in the middle of a cluster: In the Gallo-Romance languageshowever, a prop vowel was added: Middle of word[ edit ] Examples are common in many Slavic languageswhich had a preference for vowel-final syllables in earlier times.
The other Slavic languages instead metathesised the vowel and the consonant: Other examples exist in Modern Persian in which former word-initial consonant clusters, which were still extant in Middle Persianare regularly broken up: French has a three level use of initial epenthesis depending on the time of incorporation: The same occurs in the song " Umbrella ".
Regular or semiregular epenthesis commonly occurs in languages with affixes. That is again a synchronic analysis, as the form with the vowel is the original form and the vowel was later often lost. Borrowed words[ edit ] Vocalic epenthesis typically occurs when words are borrowed from a language that has consonant clusters or syllable codas that are not permitted in the borrowing language.
Languages use various vowels, but schwa is quite common when it is available: Most speakers pronounce borrowings with spelling pronunciationsand others try to approximate the nearest equivalents in Portuguese of the phonemes in the original language.
Turkish prefixes close vowels to loanwords with initial clusters of alveolar fricatives followed by another consonant: The practice is no longer productive as of late 20th century and a few such words have changed back: Informal speech[ edit ] Epenthesis most often occurs within unfamiliar or complex consonant clusters.
Epenthesis is sometimes used for humorous or childlike effect. For example, the cartoon character Yogi Bear says "pic-a-nic basket" for "picnic basket.
Some apparent occurrences of epenthesis, however, have a separate cause: Some dialects also use [e] for voiced consonant clusters, which is deemed as stereotypical of the lower classes: In Spanish, it is usual to find epenthetic vowels in sequences of plosive, flap, and vowel or labiodental fricative, flap, and vowel, normally in a non-emphatic pronunciation.
In Finnish[ edit ] In Finnishthere are two epenthetic vowels and two nativization vowels. The second is [e], connecting stems that have historically been consonant stems to their case endings: In Standard Finnish, consonant clusters may not be broken by epenthetic vowels; foreign words undergo consonant deletion rather than addition of vowels: However, modern loans may not end in consonants.
Even if the word, such as a personal name, is native, a paragogic vowel is needed to connect a consonantal case ending to the word. Finnish has moraic consonants: In Standard Finnish, they are slightly intensified before a consonant in a medial cluster: Some dialects, like Savo and Ostrobothnianhave epenthesis instead and use the preceding vowel in clusters of type -l C - and -h C - in Savo also -nh.Request PDF on ResearchGate | Vowel Epenthesis and Consonant Deletion in Japanese Loanwords from English | The current study examines Japanese loanwords from .
In Japanese. A limited number of words in Japanese use epenthetic consonants to separate vowels, example of this is the word "harusame" (, Epenthesis of a vowel, or anaptyxis. Epenthesis of a vowel, or anaptyxis (ανάπτυξής, "growth" in Greek), is also known by the Sanskrit term "svarabhakti".
In our study, this was also shown by the subjects who produced epenthetic vowels both within consonant clusters and after word-final consonants. Epenthesis of a vowel, or anaptyxis (ἀνάπτυξις, "unfolding" in Greek, anaptyctic), is also known by the Sanskrit term svarabhakti.
Some accounts distinguish between "intrusive vowels", vowel-like releases of consonants as phonetic detail, and true epenthetic vowels, . words are adapted in Japanese the Japanese phonology is at work at three levels. At the segmental level French segments are substituted by Japanese segments.
Since Japanese favors CV syllable se-quences we can see at the syllabic level the occurrence of vowel . A variation in illusion: Vowel epenthesis after /h/ in Japanese loanwords master ïs thesis by Isabelle LIN co-supervised by Dr Emmanuel DUPOUX and Dr Sharon PEPERKAMP.