When Affirmative Action Was White:
Atlantic slave trade[ edit ] Reproduction of a handbill advertising a slave auction in Charleston, South Carolinain The Atlantic slave trade had an economic foundation. The dominant ideology among the European elite who structured national policy throughout the age of the Atlantic slave trade was mercantilismthe belief that national policy should be centered around amassing military power and economic wealth.
Instead, the colonies imported African slaves, who were "available in large numbers at prices that made plantation agriculture in the Americas profitable".
According to this view, the European in-group for humane behavior included the sub-continent, while African and American Indian cultures had a more localized definition of "an insider".
While neither schema has inherent superiority, the technological advantage of Europeans became a resource to disseminate the conviction that underscored their schemas, that non-Europeans could be enslaved.
With the capability to spread their schematic representation of the world, Europeans could impose a social contract, morally permitting three centuries of African slavery. While the disintegration of this social contract by the eighteenth century led to abolitionismit is argued that the removal of barriers to "insider status" is a very slow process, uncompleted even today According to estimates in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, between and more thanslaves were forcibly transported from Africa to what is now the United States.
According to the U. During the s and s the American Colonization Society A. The colonization effort resulted from a mixture of motives with its founder Henry Clay stating, "unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of this country.
It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off". The domestic slave trade was a major economic activity in the U. The sack belonged to a nine-year-old girl Ashley which was a parting gift from her mother, Rose, after Ashley had been sold.
Rose filled the sack with a dress, braid of her hair, pecans, and "my love always" The historian Ira Berlin called this forced migration of slaves the "Second Middle Passage", because it reproduced many of the same horrors as the Middle Passage the name given to the transportation of slaves from Africa to North America.
These sales of slaves broke up many families, with Berlin writing that whether slaves were directly uprooted or lived in fear that they or their families would be involuntarily moved, "the massive deportation traumatized black people".
Added to the earlier colonists combining slaves from different tribes, many ethnic Africans lost their knowledge of varying tribal origins in Africa. Most were descended from families who had been in the U. Slavery was not actually abolished in the U. Ninety-five percent of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to one percent of the population of the North.
Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North. A crowd of thousands watched the lynching. Furthermore, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act ofwhich broadened a range of civil rights to all persons born in the United States.
Despite this, the emergence of " Black Codes ", sanctioned acts of subjugation against blacks, continued to bar African-Americans from due civil rights. The Naturalization Act of limited U.
African-Americans began voting, seeking office positions, utilizing public education.Ira Katznelson brings his enormous experience of and expertise in the history of American politics and institutions to bear on this vast subject, and his impressive command of the material shows on every page.
"Americans with a Difference," "Jim Crow Congress" in Ira Katznelson, Fear Itself Significance In a time where legalized racial discrimination was coming to an end, the government created a new strategy using de facto racism through which it continued to marginalize Black people. It is Harvey's fear that neoliberal regimes will slowly erode institutions of political democracy since the freedom of the people would be restricted in favour of the freedoms of the few.
Paineâ€™s and Madisonâ€™s Novel Liberalism Andreas Kalyvas and Ira Katznelsons argue that the relationship between republicanism and liberalism.
Aug 12, · Ira Katznelson is a professor of political science and history at Columbia University, president of the Social Science Research Council and the author of “When Affirmative Action Was White.” Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook and Twitter (@NYTopinion), and sign up for the Opinion Today newsletter.
When Affirmative Action Was White offers a worthwhile contribution to the debate over affirmative action, but not without shortcomings. First, Katznelson's argument would be more compelling with a better exposition of how New Deal and Fair Deal programs secured the social well-being of white ethnic groups.
Fear pervaded the period, he says: fear in the s that American liberal democracy might, as the dictators of Germany, Italy, and Russia predicted, fail to meet the Depression's challenge and collapse; fear after of the Soviet Union and atomic war.