Monday, December 21, How to Write Predictions and Hypotheses in Psychological Research Reports This post discusses the topic of predictions in psychological research. The main aim of the post is to provide assistance to researchers who are in the process of writing their predictions in a thesis, lab report, or journal article. Overview The four goals of science are sometimes defined as description, prediction, explanation and control. The scientific imagination often leads to questions like:
Monday, December 21, How to Write Predictions and Hypotheses in Psychological Research Reports This post discusses the topic of predictions in psychological research.
The main aim of the post is to provide assistance to researchers who are in the process of writing their predictions in a thesis, lab report, or journal article.
Overview The four goals of science are sometimes defined as description, prediction, explanation and control. The scientific imagination often leads to questions like: If the phenomena is unpredictable, we should be able to predict properties of the randomness.
Prediction serves several purposes.
Encourage a confirmatory orientation to prediction and discourage post hoc reasoning Test the predictive power of a theory Compare the predictive power of alternative theories Require researchers to demonstrate an understanding of the implications of existing theories and research findings Properties of a Predictions Predictions have various properties.
Predictions answer questions about the state of the world. Scientific predictions should be justified. Rationale Predictions should have a rationale. The rationale explains why the prediction is made. One type of rationale aims to show why a prediction is accurate. If the prediction is based on theory, evidence may be led about the prior predictive success of the theory and the relevance of the theory to the present circumstances.
If the prediction is based on analogy to previous research, evidence may be led about the results of the previous research and the similarities with the present study. A second type of rationale aims to show that the prediction is consistent with assumptions.
In particular, if a theory is used to justify a prediction, the relationship between the theory and the predictions need to be clearly and logically articulated.
The source of the rationale for a prediction can come from many sources. In some settings specific quantitative models can be used to make predictions.
For example, in cognitive psychology cognitive architectures such as ACT-R can be used to generate quantitative predictions. Research Question A prediction answers a question. Answering questions is the basis of expanding knowledge and represents a common aim of empirical reports. For example, a prediction that the relationship between practice and performance follows a power function is a potential answer to several questions.
At the simplest level, it could be rephrased as "is the relationship between practice and performance described well by a power function? Thus, the scientific method of reporting results reiterates ideas through the process of aims, questions, predictions, results, and conclusions.It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study.
For example, a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis that states, "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep-deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals.
Oct 22, · In this Article: Article Summary Preparing to Write a Hypothesis Formulating Your Hypothesis Community Q&A A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observation and experimentation%(87).
Below is a short explanation of a hypothesis statement and some examples of hypothesis statements. Hypothesis statement--a prediction that can be tested or an educated guess.
In a hypothesis statement, students make a prediction about what they think will happen or is happening in their experiment. Examples of an If, Then Hypothesis If you get at least 6 hours of sleep, you will do better on tests than if you get less sleep.
If you drop a ball, it will fall toward the ground.
Dec 21, · Predictions based on presence or absence are typically tested against using two sided significance tests getting the extremity of the data given assuming a null hypothesis.
Similarly directional hypotheses can be evaluated by one-sided tests. Test the prediction and observe what happens. Predictions in the Real World Predictions are made in science all the time, but even our daily lives we make predictions every day. Some examples of real world predictions are: It is raining and the sun is out one could predict there may be a rainbow.