Scanning electron micrograph of a human neutrophil ingesting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA The emergence of resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a common phenomenon. Emergence of resistance often reflects evolutionary processes that take place during antibiotic therapy. The antibiotic treatment may select for bacterial strains with physiologically or genetically enhanced capacity to survive high doses of antibiotics. Under certain conditions, it may result in preferential growth of resistant bacteria, while growth of susceptible bacteria is inhibited by the drug.
Botanical features[ edit ] Leaves: Antimicrobial activity plant extracts thesis leaves have significant variability in their morphology. In general, the leaves are green to pale green, alternate to subopposite, and three- to five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis.
Plants occasionally present hermaphroditic flowers. Most fruit production is concentrated from midsummer to late fall with variations in production peaks where some plants have two or three harvests and some produce continuously through the season.
In addition, the seeds contain other chemical compounds, such as saccharoseraffinosestachyoseglucosefructosegalactoseand protein. The oil is largely made up of oleic and linoleic acids. Furthermore, the plant also contains curcasin, arachidic, myristicpalmiticand stearic acids and curcin. Jatropha curcas grows in tropical and subtropical regions.
It can thrive in poor and stony soils, although new research suggests that the plant's ability to adapt to these poor soils is not as extensive as had been previously stated. Complete germination is achieved within 9 days. Adding manure during the germination has negative effects during that phase, but is favorable if applied after germination is achieved.
It can be propagated by cuttings, which yields faster results than multiplication by seeds. The flowers only develop terminally at the end of a stemso a good ramification plants presenting many branches produces the greatest amount of fruits.
The plants are self-compatible. Ploughing and planting are not needed regularly, as this shrub has a life expectancy of approximately forty years. The use of pesticides is not necessary, due to the pesticidal and fungicidal properties of the plant.
It is used in rural Bengal for dhobi itch a common fungal infection of the skin. While Jatropha curcas starts yielding from 9—12 months time, the best yields are obtained only after 2—3 years time. The seed production is around 3. If planted in hedgesthe reported productivity of Jatropha is from 0.
Clonal techniques can help in overcoming these problems. Vegetative propagation has been achieved by stem cuttingsgraftingbudding as well as by air layering techniques.
Cuttings should be taken preferably from juvenile plants and treated with micro gram per litre of IBA rooting hormone to ensure the highest level of rooting in stem cuttings. Processing[ edit ] Seed extraction and processing generally needs specialized facilities.
The cake can also be used as feed in digesters and gasifiers to produce biogas. Treat your jatropha plant as well as possible to make the yield as large as possible! There are several forms of biofuel, often manufactured using sedimentationcentrifugationand filtration.
The fats and oils are turned into esters while separating the glycerin. At the end of the process, the glycerin settles and the biofuel floats. The process through which the glycerin is separated from the biodiesel is known as transesterification. Glycerin is another by-product from Jatropha oil processing that can add value to the crop.
Transesterification is a simple chemical reaction that neutralizes the free fatty acids present in any fatty substances in Jatropha. A chemical exchange takes place between the alkoxy groups of an ester compound by an alcohol. Usually, methanol and ethanol are used for the purpose.
The reaction occurs by the presence of a catalystusually sodium hydroxide NaOH or caustic soda and potassium hydroxide KOHwhich forms fatty esters e. Seed yields under cultivation can range from 1, to 2, kilograms per hectarecorresponding to extractable oil yields of to litres per hectare 58 to 73 US gallons per acre.less antimicrobial properties (Balandrin et al., ).
According to WHO, 80% of the world population depends on herbal medicines for their primary health care needs Antibacterial activity of plant extracts of 34 species by disc diffusion method Test organism Plant species us Parts used Zone of inhibition in diameter (mm).
The First Year. Upon arriving at Texas A&M, we help you get acclimated to life in College Station and in the Department of Biology.
You will meet your fellow entering students, who will undoubtedly be a source of friendship and moral support during graduate school and beyond. At least one author of an abstract must be registered for the Congress in order to be included in the abstract book.
One author can present only ONE abstract. i ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST BACTERIA CAUSING DIARRHOEA by NAOMI TOPE KOMOLAFE Submitted in accordance with the requirements for. Use the Latin names in Google to locate pictures of the plant, and references to the scientific literature.
Use a slash to open a dialog box where you can type the sinhala name in roman letters (e.g., Ehela, or Aehaela, Waraka or Varaka) to locate the botanical (Latin) name. The Institute of Bioinformatics (IOB) established by Dr. Akhilesh Pandey, is a non-profit academic research organization located at International Tech Park in Bangalore, India.
IOB is recognized by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India.