We are neither affiliated with the author of this essay nor responsible for its content. Despite the high prevalence and potentially serious outcomes associated with concussion in athletes, there is little systematic research examining risk factors and short- and long-term outcomes. Objectives To assess the relationship between concussion history and learning disability LD and the association of these variables with neuropsychological performance and to evaluate postconcussion recovery in a sample of college football players. Design, Setting, and Participants A total of athletes from 4 university football programs across the United States received preseason baseline evaluations between May and February
Treatment[ edit ] Management of post-concussion syndrome typically involves treatments addressing specific symptoms;  for example, people can take pain relievers for headaches and medicine to relieve depression or insomnia.
Therapy aims to aid in the gradual return to work and other preinjury activities, as symptoms permit. A protocol for PCS treatment has been designed based on the principles behind Cognitive behavioral therapy CBTa psychotherapy aimed at influencing disturbed emotions by improving thoughts and behaviors.
A risk exists that the " power of suggestion " may worsen symptoms and cause long-term disabilities;  therefore, when counseling is indicated, the therapist must take a psychological origin of symptoms into account and not assume that all symptoms are a direct result of neurological damage from the injury.
People with PTSD, depression, and anxiety can be treated with medication and psychotherapy. Recent neurotherapy improvements in quantitative electroencephalography can identify the specific brainwave patterns that need to be corrected.
Studies have shown that neurotherapy is effective in the treatment of post-concussion syndrome and other disorders with similar symptoms. Persistent, often severe headaches are the longest lingering symptom in most cases and are the most likely symptom to never fully resolve.
If symptoms are not resolved by one year, they are likely to be permanent, though improvements may occur after even two or three years,  or may suddenly occur after a long time without much improvement. The condition was originally called "railroad spine" because most of the injuries studied had happened to railroad workers.
The illness was called shell shock, and a psychological explanation was eventually favoured. Miller first used the term "accident neurosis" to refer to the syndrome which is now called PCS and asserted that the condition only occurs in situations where people stand to be compensated for the injury.
Many of these PCS sufferers were misdiagnosed as having other unrelated conditions due to commonality of symptoms. Couch, Lipton, Stewart and Scher  argue that headaches, one of the hallmarks of PCS, occur in a variety of injuries to the head and neck.
Further, Lew et al. They point out that the International Headache Society lists 14 known causes of headaches, as well. Furthermore, the headaches may be better accounted for by mechanical causes, such as whiplash, which is often mistaken for PCS.
Because PCS symptoms are so varied and many can be associated with a large number of other conditions, doubt exists about whether the term "syndrome" is appropriate for the constellation of symptoms found after concussion.Table 1 lists the individual neuropsychological tests that make up the ImPACT Neuropsychological Test Battery, as well as the neuropsychological domains measured by each subtest.
For a more thorough description, see Lovell et al. (), Iverson, Gaetz, Lovell, and Collins (), or Podell (). WorkUp Lab Studies. No laboratory tests help in diagnosing repetitive head injury. Most cases are diagnosed on the basis of the clinical findings.
Authors: Dr. Rob Hudson*(1), Dr.
Brandon Spradley(1) (1)Faculty member of the United States Sports Academy *Corresponding Author: Rob Hudson Director of. Reggae Playground [Sound Recording] Vol IV, Jackson Joe Martin Van Buren - The Little Magician, Pierre-Marie Loizeau Border-line Insanity, Tim Ramsden The Brave and the Bold, v.
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The recovery pattern of players who sustained concussion across different time intervals was evaluated by standardizing all neuropsychological test results and comparing performance of the athletes with concussion with controls' performance within 24 hours, and at 3, 5, and 7 days postinjury.
The college football players were followed up for a total of player-seasons. Our study resulted in reported concussions among players (12 concussions were prospective repeat concussions). Of the incident concussions, 94 were included in the assessment group.